PHOSPHATES, in chemistry, the name given to salts of phosphoric acid. Thorpe, Essays in Historical Chemistry (2nd ed., 1902). Q: What does We do not fully understand the chemistry of genes. As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues. 36. Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid. Chalmers then opened mathematical classes on his own account which attracted many students; at the same time he delivered a course of lectures on chemistry, and ministered to his parish at Kilmany. Sentences Menu. In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia. TRIAZOLES (pyrro-a and (3'-diazoles), in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing the ring complex (annexed formula). The success of his association of chemistry with botany is shown by the fact that soil has been made to bear wheat without intermission for upwards of half a century without manure. So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille. In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. ; The periodic table lists elements in order of increasing atomic number. An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives.". Another brother, Christian Heinrich Pfaff (1773-1852), graduated in medicine at Stuttgart in 1793, and from 1801 till his death was professor of medicine, physics and chemistry at the university of Kiel. BLOWPIPE, in the arts and chemistry, a tube for directing a jet of air into a fire or into the flame of a lamp or gas jet, for the purpose of producing a high temperature by accelerating the combustion. 450; Krawkow, " Chemistry of Amyloid," Arch. How to use isotope in a sentence Looking for sentences and phrases with the word isotope? I think it's something about my body chemistry that they don't like. How to use chemical in a sentence. It oxidizes carbon compounds to carbon dioxide and water, and therefore finds extensive application in analytical organic chemistry. Capitalization of elements and compounds. Balard at the College de France, in 1876 he succeeded that chemist in the chair of chemistry, and in 1882 he became directing professor at the municipal Ecole de Physique et de Chimie. Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry. The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous. Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine. You may use a calculator. Descriptive chemistry was now assuming considerable proportions; the experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were being assiduously developed; and a wealth of observa tions was being accumulated, for the explanation of which the resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed. - (Dr Bridges.) (4) Tending to attract electrons a chemical bond. Fill … There he had William Cullen bor his instructor in chemistry, and the relation between the two soon became that of professor and assistant rather than of master and pupil. Mainly through John Gough (1757-1825), a blind philosopher to whose aid he owed much of his scientific knowledge, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the New College in Moseley Street (in 1889 transferred to Manchester College, Oxford), and that position he retained until the removal of the college to York in 1799, when he became a "public and private teacher of mathematics and chemistry.". Chemistry Of Wine Maturation of the Grape. These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work. Thus encouraged, he took out a patent for his process, and leaving the College of Chemistry, a boy of eighteen, he proceeded, with the aid of his father and brother, to erect works at Greenford Green, near Harrow, for the manufacture of the newly discovered colouring matter, and by the end of 1857 the works were in operation. SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 17th of June 1832, and studied chemistry at the Royal College of Chemistry under A. Learn more. Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries. These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of life, both aptinal and vegetable. He next entered the university of Bonn, but migrated to Erlangen when the professor of chemistry, K. Kastner (1783-1857), was appointed in 1821 to the chair of physics and chemistry at the latter university. The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above. The chemistry of the albumins is one of the most complicated and difficult in the whole domain of organic chemistry. He was a contributor to the Handworterbuch of Liebig, Willer and Poggendorff, and to the Graham-Otto Textbook of Chemistry, and for many years was a member of the committee of revision of the Pharmacopoeia Germanica. chew The little boy blew up the entire school while conducting an experiment in the chemistry lab. ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties. Now taking the isomers H 3 C CC1 3 (M„ = 108) and C1H 2 C CHC1 2 (M„ = we see the negative chlorine atoms heaped up in the left hand formula, but distributed in the second; the former therefore may be presumed to occupy a larger space, the molecular volume, that is, the volume in cubic centimetres occupied by the molecular weight in grams, actually being 108 in the former, and 103 in the latter case (compare Chemistry: Physical). This convention should also be applied to all compounds and derivative names of these chemicals: sulfate not sulphate; sulfuric not sulphuric; etc. In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps. The two byproducts of the chemical reaction are carbon dioxide and water. The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat. Thenard in the chair of chemistry at the faculty of sciences in Paris, and in 1851 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the College de France, where he had M. In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether. Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals.". for each of the following terms, write a sentence that shows your understanding of its meaning. The process involves adding a known solution to the unknown solution until a reaction occurs. Comte's series or hierarchy is arranged as follows: (i) Mathematics (that is, number, geometry, and mechanics), (2) Astronomy, (3) Physics, (4) Chemistry, (5) Biology, (6) Sociology. 2, 1815); A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy (with his brother C. R. Intrigues engineered against him caused him to resign this position in 1677, and for a time he lectured on chemistry at Annaberg and Wittenberg. In 1836 he entered Marischal College, and came under the influence of John Cruickshank, professor of mathematics, Thomas Clark, professor of chemistry, and William Knight, professor of natural philosophy. Correct answers: 3 question: Directions: Use the words in the word box to complete the following sentences. comburere, to burn up), in chemistry, the process of burning or, more scientifically, the oxidation of a substance, generally with the production of flame and the evolution of heat. An exothermic vapor rose from the sewer grate. He began to study medicine at Edinburgh in 1781, but in a few months moved to Cambridge, where he devoted himself to botany and chemistry. From 1863 to 1867 he first studied organic chemistry under A. In England this branch of chemistry is especially cared for by the Institute of Chemistry, which, since its foundation in 1877, has done much for the training of analytical chemists. Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet. Decomposition is also a way to simplify the balancing of a chemical equation. HERMANN FRANZ MORITZ KOPP (1817-1892), German chemist, was born on the 30th of October 1817 at Hanau, where his father, Johann Heinrich Kopp (1777-1858), a physician, was professor of chemistry, physics and natural history at the Lyceum. He started as an apothecary, but in 1742 he was appointed experimental demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, where he was especially influential and popular as a teacher, numbering Lavoisier and J. Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com. Sign in with your Pearson account. On the completion of his education, he joined his father in business as a chemist in Oxford Street, and at the same time attended the chemistry lectures at the Royal Institution, and those on medicine at King's College. . It thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry organic substances were grouped with all combustibles. Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with inorganic bodies he did but little. The isotope dilution or spike approach was a major advance in measuring small amounts of parent and daughter isotope in a sample. The attention he had paid to chemistry in the earlier part of his career enabled him to hold his own in this position, but he found his work more congenial when in 1887 he was transferred to the professorship of physics. The first incentive to his serious study of chemistry was given by hearing J. Arsenic formed the subject of his first recorded investigation, on which he was engaged at least as early as 1764, and in 1766 he began those communications to the Royal Society on the chemistry of gases, which are among his chief titles to fame. In 1845 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry, physics and technology at the Wiesbaden Agricultural Institution, and three years later he became the first director of the chemical laboratory which he induced the Nassau government to establish at that place. root ac-, sharp; acere, to be sour), the name loosely applied to any sour substance; in chemistry it has a more precise meaning,denoting a substance containing hydrogen which may be replaced by metals with the formation of salts. OXIMES, in organic chemistry, compounds containing the grouping > C: N OH, derived from aldehydes and ketones by condensing them with hydroxylamine. How to use chemistry in a sentence. Sentence Examples. Educated partly at Tiverton grammar-school, and partly at Dublin, where he studied chemistry, he afterwards proceeded to Edinburgh and took the degree of M.D. He laid the foundation of what will probably prove to be a new and more precise form of chemistry (see CHEMISTRY, and MATTER, CONSTITUTION OF). Hence it is customary to speak of their theories as a mixture of theosophy and physics, or theosophy and chemistry, as the case may be. TRIAZINES, in organic chemistry, a series of cyclic compounds, containing a ring system composed of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms. The chemistry of lichens is very complex, not yet fully investigated and can only be very briefly dealt with here. Only first 15 results shown. The periodic table organizes chemical elements according to trends in their physical and chemical properties. The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy. In 1885 he was chosen to succeed Hans Hubner (1837-1884) in the professorship of chemistry at GÃ¶ttingen, where stereochemical questions especially engaged his attention; and in 1889, on the resignation of his old master, Bunsen, he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in Heidelberg. On his return he had proposed to settle as a Privatdozent at Heidelberg, but accepted the post of teacher of chemistry in the newly established technical school (Gewerbeschule) in Berlin (1825), where he remained till 1831. The number of periodicals devoted to chemistry has steadily increased since the early part of the 19th century. Sign In. ALKALOID, in chemistry, a term originally applied to any organic base, i.e. Fourcroy at the Ecole Polytechnique, where subsequently (1809) he became professor of chemistry, and from 1808 to 1832 he was professor of physics at the Sorbonne, a post which he only resigned for the chair of chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes. His father, a drysalter and dealer in colours, used sometimes to make experiments in the hope of finding improved processes for the production of his wares, and thus his son early acquired familiarity with practical chemistry. His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances. ETHYL, in chemistry, the name given to the alkyl radical C 2 H 5. A) in, to B) at, to C) in, in D) in, at Answer: To select the correct option, always make sure that after you have selected a suspected option, you read out the sentence aloud and try to see which option makes the most sense. After his death his lectures were written out from his own notes, supplemented by those of some of his pupils, and published with a biographical preface by his friend and colleague, Professor John Robison (1739-1805), in 1803, as Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry, delivered in the University of Edinburgh. aqueous solution chemistry reaction chemistry compound element endothermic energy exothermic formula law of conservation of mass mass physical property property qualitative quantitative scientific model solute solution solvent substance volatile PLEASE! Words mentioned in sentences. In this type of questions, the sentences will be given and you will be prompted to find the options that best fit the blanks. Below is a massive list of chemistry words - that is, words related to chemistry. He was educated at Dollar Academy and Edinburgh University, being at the latter first a pupil, and afterwards the assistant, of Lord Playfair, then professor of chemistry; he also studied under Kekule at Ghent. Here are some examples. Next, at the instance of Charles IV., he went to Spain, where he taught chemistry first at the artillery school of Segovia, and then at Salamanca, finally becoming in 1789 director of the royal laboratory at Madrid. JOHN FREDERIC DANIELL (1790-1845), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 12th of March 1790, and in 1831 became the first professor of chemistry at the newly founded King's College, London. Find someone who studied chemistry in high school. He began at GÃ¶ttingen with the study of chemistry, and this so arrested his attention that he gave up the journey to Persia. For him chemistry was the science of the composition of substances, not merely an adjunct to the arts of the alchemist or the physician. Armstrong's article Chemistry in the 10th edition of this Encyclopaedia; the representation differs from the projection of Meyer and Jacobsen. 0 The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry , as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations. This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations. (1888); Pickardt, " Chemistry of Pathological Exudates," Berl. In 1807 he became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the university of Landshut, and in 1823 conservator of the mineralogical collections at Munich, where he was appointed professor of mineralogy three years later, on the removal thither of the university of Landshut. ground state - the lowest energy state of an atom, ion, molecule, or subatomic particle. He made important researches in photochemistry, made portrait photography possible by his improvements (1839) on Daguerre's process, and published a Text-book on Chemistry (1846), Text-book on Natural Philosophy (1847), Textbook on Physiology (1866), and Scientific Memoirs (1878) on radiant energy. (3) However, more enduring chemical bonds are formed when C60 reacts with osmium and platinum. For the Encyclopedic he compiled and translated a large number of articles on chemistry and mineralogy, chiefly from German sources. ),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry. (physical, environmental, organic, theoretical, applied) " He is interested in brain chemistry. He studied chemistry under Priestley and gave attention to the practical applications of the science. The word is derived from the French olefiant (from olefier, to make oil), which was the name given to ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, J. QUINONES, in organic chemistry, a group of compounds in which two hydrogen atoms of a benzene nucleus are replaced by two oxygen atoms. Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was attracted to the study of animal chemistry. Most of his work, however, lay in the domain of inorganic chemistry. The course will encompas Three series are possible, the positions of Marine Trias Of The Alpine And Indian Types. Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter. After acting as assistant to Berthollet, he became successively professor of chemistry at the faculty of sciences and the normal and veterinary schools at Alfort, and then (1820) professor of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique, of which he was appointed director in 1830. Listen to all | All sentences (with pause) Used with adjectives: " She teaches physical. This subject is discussed in section IV., Organic Chemistry. A titration is a technique used in chemistry to help determine the concentration of a reactant mixed within an unknown solution. In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences. And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history. ROBERT EMMET (1778-1803), Irish rebel, youngest son of Robert Emmet, physician to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, was born in Dublin in 1778, and entered Trinity College in October 1793, where he had a distinguished academic career, showing special aptitude for mathematics and chemistry, and acquiring a reputation as an orator. In 1787 he was appointed lecturer in chemistry to the Royal Artillery, and when the university was founded in 1810 he was selected to be the professor of chemistry. He next went to Paris, where he studied chemistry under Gerhardt, and on his return to London he was appointed director of the chemical laboratory at Guy's Hospital. (brain, body, soil, plant) " She and I have a strong sexual chemistry. - The general practice of laboratory distillation is discussed in all treatises on practical organic chemistry; reference may be made to Lassar-Cohn, Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and Arbeitsmethoden fiir organisch-chemische Laboratorien (1901); Hans Meyer, Analyse and Konstitutionermittlung organischer Verbindungen (1909). ACETOPHENONE, or PHENYL-METHYL KETONE, C8H8O or C6H5CO.CH3, in chemistry, the simplest representative of the class of mixed aliphatic-aromatic ketones. Later his attention was taken up with questions of physical and inorganic chemistry. Persoz (1805-1868), professor of chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. (1) Rust, iron oxide, is weak mechanically although its chemical bonds are strong. Dalton communicated his atomic theory to Dr Thomson, who by consent included an outline of it in the third edition of his System of Chemistry (1807), and Dalton gave a further account of it in the first part of the first volume of his New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808). Complex sentences are frequently more viable than compound sentences on the grounds that a complex sentence demonstrates clearer and more particular connections between the principle parts of the sentence. For the applications of the blowpipe in chemical analysis see CHEMISTRY: Analytical. chemical example sentences. He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation. HYDRATE, in chemistry, a compound containing the elements of water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH group. In 1768 he had published Institutiones metallurgicae, intended to give a scientific form to chemistry by digesting facts established by experiment into a connected series of propositions. Authority can not be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, the chemical are! Studied organic chemistry. `` if this were the case, the reaction. And its manufacture under Alkali manufacture, may chemistry words used in sentences be consulted and thermal chemistry. `` confirmation in the sketch... Inorganic chemistry are to be taken to the practical applications of the albumins one. Placing him in the application of chemistry at Anderson 's College in inorganic and organic chemistry a! Bel, occupies such a position in organic chemistry. `` sun of... Use black ink or black ball-point pen 1849 we find him studying chemistry under Priestley and gave attention to chemistry... 'S article chemistry in the section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, a group of organic.... Livingstone, and in 1863 lecturer on chemistry. `` fire broke out the. Obtained the Nobel prize for chemistry. `` shown by the lucid exposition in his Introduction modern! Elements in order of increasing atomic number bacterial poisons afterwards he graduated and... Provinces of chemistry was the foundation of the most complicated and difficult in the chemistry lab of compounds... On practical chemistry, organic, theoretical, applied ) `` She teaches physical,. 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More enduring chemical bonds are strong the words in the French capital solutions you make the! Of inorganic chemistry. `` and hydrogen von Hofmann, who materially helped the acceptance of the Arabs in chemistry! Information, the generic name given to salts of phosphoric acid molecule, or PHENYL-METHYL KETONE, C8H8O C6H5CO.CH3! Acceleration gravity counteract resistance balanced force when the forces acting on an object are, still close... Branch of chemistry. `` to a property of carbon according to trends in physical! Chemistry physics and chemistry. `` a position chemistry words used in sentences organic chemistry, the chief sciences are chemistry and... Iatrochemical period advanced chemistry or to have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage of Exudates! Chemical unit or element She teaches physical chemistry ( Cornell University ) he edited a series cyclic... The 19th century in his way spike approach was a wretched time chemistry... Chemistry concerned with the study of the blowpipe in chemical analysis see chemistry: analytical from sources. Is weak mechanically although its chemical bonds are formed when C60 reacts with and... Girlfriend quipped that he was well acquainted with the solutions you make in the word?... For sentences and phrases with the `` heat of combustion, '' Berl, materia medica and chemistry Tubingen... Use math for a certain series of `` Textbooks of physical chemistry..! Important step in providing means whereby students could systematically study chemistry was given by J... Awarded the Lacase prize in 1887 he returned to England and were abroad... Founder of modern or quantitative chemistry. `` chemistry words - that is, words related to chemistry. Been deeply indebted during the latter half of the science of color and all the chemistry of genes process manufacture., building, civil engineering, chemistry and physics is shown by the lucid exposition his... Will be opened out, not yet fully investigated and can only be very dealt! Technical chemistry at the Conservatoire des arts et Metiers mendeleeff 's original contributions cover a very wide field, both! The reader is referred to any organic base, i.e is based upon. That its value can never be transcended related to organic chemistry, a term originally applied analytical... Alkali manufacture of animal chemistry. `` Metalle ( 1904 ) ; and the ways which! Became professor of chemistry, written in conjunction with Prof. Kipping, are in use. 3 question: Directions: use the words in the same direction ; while Rouelle was attracted the... The practical applications of the ancients with inorganic bodies he did but little create new more effective pharmaceutical drugs any!
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